Population awareness of coronary artery disease risk factors in Jeddah

Mohammed Ali Almalki, Maram Nader AlJishi, Maie Abdulrhman Khayat, Hotoun Fayez Bokhari, Ahmed Hussein Subki, Abdulrahman Mousa Alzahrani, Wesam Awad Alhejily

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a serious cardiovascular disorder affecting middle-aged individuals. It is a major cause of death among adults over the age of 35 years. In Saudi Arabia, CAD is associated with higher mortality rate, and Saudi patients are reported to have significantly higher prevalence of risk factors for CAD than the Western population. Furthermore, as, to date, there is no definite cure for CAD, prevention of the disease and tight control of the known risk factors are the cornerstones for reducing CAD-associated mortality. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the population awareness of CAD risk factors in Saudi Arabia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah during the period January 2017 to December 2017 by using an online survey questionnaire to assess participants’ awareness of 14 risk factors for CAD, namely: smoking, lack of physical activity, fast food and soft drink intake, television and computer use; history of diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and stroke; as well as a family history of diabetes mellitus, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, CAD and myocardial infarction.
Results: Of 468 respondents, 41% were males. The mean age was 31.9±12.4. Approximately 86% were Saudi, and ~60% had a university education. The mean overall awareness score was 4.31±1.36 (1.00–8.00). Fast food, soft drinks, and family history of diabetes were the most commonly identified risk factors, reported by 74.8%, 64.3%, and 47.2% of participants, respectively. There was a strong correlation between overall awareness score and awareness of each risk factor individually (P<0.003).
Conclusion: There is an evident limited knowledge among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia regarding the risk factors for CAD, and it is recommended that the healthcare sector in the country focus on public health education programs about the disease.

Keywords: population, public, awareness, coronary artery disease, risk factors, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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